PhD Thesis

Markus Schröppel

University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland

Prof. Dr. Brusila

Actual and Prospective
Lapin yliopisto, Rovaniemi
CORE, Tampereen yliopisto



Project Questionnaires

Great · Thank you very much

Thank you all for assisting me with the online survey.
The three Project Questionnaires are not any longer online:


»Comparative Test of Public Symbols«*
     rework of an equivalent survey launched between August 2006 and April 2007
     as an online survey to research the existing public symbols and pictogram standards.

     Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design Budapest (HU) / ULapland, Rovaniemi (FIN).

»Comparative Test of Smartphone/Navigation Symbols«**
     an online survey to research the existing symbols and pictogram standards
     used in handheld applications.
     As a part of my lectures AGRA0902 Envisioning Information and
     AGRA0316 Envisioning Information II from 2008 - 2011

     University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (FIN).

»Cognitive test of airportsignage.«***
     an online survey in the field of intelligence and behavior simulating the perception
     at airport terminals.
     It is a part of my lectures AGRA0902 Envisioning Information (2012) and
     M4 Graphik im Raum from 2012/13

     University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (FIN)/HMKW, Berlin/Cologne (GER).

See the results:


»Comparative Test of Public Symbols«*
     Aggregate View from Sept. 8th 2013
     University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (FIN)

»Comparative Test of Smartphone/Navigation Symbols«**
     Aggregate View from Sept. 26th 2012
     University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (FIN)

»Cognitive test of airportsignage.«***
     Aggregate View from March 24th 2013
     University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (FIN)/HMKW, Berlin/Cologne (GER)

*»Comparative Test of Public Symbols«

is using Public Symbols from:

ADCA: Australian Department of Civil Aviation. Kinneir, Calvert, and Associates (AUT).
ADV: German Airport Authority. M. Krampen and H.W. Kapitzki (GER).
ATA: Air Transport Association of America, Inc. (ATA), Arnold Thompson Associates (USA).
BAA: British Airports Authority. Kinneir, Calvert, and Tuhill (UK).
D/FW: Dallas-Forth Worth. Henry Dreyfuss Associates (USA).
DOT'74: Department of Transportation, 1974. The American Institute of Graphic Arts,
     Cook and Shanoski Associates (USA). ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal (CAN).
KFAI: Sweden. Claes Tottie. (SE)
LVA: Las Vegas Airport. Richard Graef and John Follis. (USA)
NRR: Netherlands Railroad. (NL)
O'64: Tokyo Olympic Games, 1964. Masaru Katzumie, Yoshiro Yamashita (JP)
O'72: Munich Olympic Games, 1972. Otl Aicher, Gerhard Joksch, Rolf Müller, Elena Winschermann, (GER).
Pg: Pictografics. Paul Arthur and Associates, Birmingham (UK).
Port: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Design Staff of the Aviation Dept. Owen Scott (USA)
SP: Swedish Standard Recreation Symbols. Kelvin Ekeland, Marie-Louise Halminen, Sven Lundström (SE)
TA: Tokyo Airport. Aisaku Murakoshi
UIC: International Union of Railways/Union Internationale des Chemins de fer, Paris (FR).
WO'72: Sapporo Winter Olympics, 1972. Masaru Katzumie, Yoshiro Yamashita, Fukuda Shigeo (JP).
X'67: Montreal Expo 67. Paul Arthur and Associates (CN).
X'70: Osaka Expo 70. Eknan Kenji, GK Industrial Design Institute, Isozaki Arata, Fukuda Shigeo (JP).

**»Comparative Test of Smartphone/Navigation Symbols«

is using Public Symbols from:

APAD: Shenzhen Utopia Technology Co. (CN)
Apple: Apple Inc. Cupertino, Kalifornia (USA)
Blackberry: Research In Motion (RIM), Waterloo, Ontario (CAN)
CECT: Qiao Xing, Guangdong Province, P.R. China (CN)
Cologne-Bonn Airport (CGN), Cologne (GER)
FF Netto (Font), by Daniel Utz, FontShop, Berlin (GER)
Garmin: Garmin International Inc., Schaffhausen (CH)
Samsung: Samsung AG, Seoul, Southcorea (ROK)
Sony Ericsson: Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, London (UK)
TomTom: TomTom N.V., Amsterdam (NL)

***»Cognitive test of airportsignage.«

is using maps and renderings from from:

Aeropuerto de Barcelona; ›El Prat‹ (IATA: BCN) (ES)
Paris ›Charles De Gaulle‹ Airport Terminal E, (IATA: CDG) (FR)
Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (IATA: AUS), Austin, Texas (USA)
Incheon, Incheon International Airport, South Korea, (IATA: ICN)
Berlin ›Willy Brand‹ Airport Terminal rendering, (IATA: BER), (GER)
Tania Idesti, Markus Schröppel photocomposing
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, (IATA: DTW), Detroit (USA)
Brussels Airport, Aéroport Bruxelles-National (IATA-Code: BRU), (BE)
Rendering, nautical sign (Binnenschifffahrtsstraßen-Ordnung (BinSchStrO))
Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SIN)
Image from Katrin Hanses masterthesis ›Future of the Airport‹, CIAD, Cologne, 2012 (GER)
Rendering by Gensler?s Design for San Francisco International Airport's Terminal 2 (SFO T2), (USA)
Rendering (Schröppel), posters (fake), public sign (AIGA)